*Trigger warning: This movie is about a real-life suicide, please do not read if you are sensitive to this topic. Also, this essay has spoilers, if you did not see the movie, and want to experience it without spoilers, please go watch it before reading.

The movie 14 Hours is considered a “noir” film, it was released in 1951, directed by Henry Hathaway with a screenplay by John Paxton, based on an article by Joel Sayre in The New Yorker describing the 1938 suicide of John William Warde. This movie was based on a true story, John William Warde was…


Rawl’s Principles of Justice Explained.

John Rawls is a famous American philosopher who is well known for his book A Theory of Justice. Rawls published this book in 1971 and spent the rest of his life answering objections, and reviewing his theory, until his death in 2002. In this article, I will try to explain in lay terms both Rawl’s original position or veil of ignorance, and his two principles of justice. In order to illustrate this position, I will use a cake metaphor. …


The Doll Test was an experiment used in the Brown v Board of Education Supreme Court case that ended segregation. Before this decision the accepted mantra was “separate but equal”, the supreme court decided that separation and inequality went hand in hand and therefore it was unconstitutional. The Doll Test was done in the 40s by Kenneth B. Clark and Mamie P. Clark and it was a way to understand self-perception in negro children (the paper where the results are presented is called Racial Identification and Preference in Negro Children). The test was done in the following way: “the subjects…


Abortion is often a topic of both philosophical and legal debate. The two positions in the public sphere are pro-life and pro-choice. People who are pro-life believe that life is inviolable and that one should preserve life no matter what, while people who are pro-choice believe the woman carrying the baby should have a choice of whether to continue the pregnancy or not.

The pro-life side is based on a simple principle; life is inviolable. You do not terminate life no matter what, a fetus is alive, therefore we cannot terminate a fetus’s life. There are different variations of this…


The Good Place, The Trolley Problem.

The Trolley Problem has become a part of popular culture, it is featured in the NBC show The Good Place, there are many comical variations of it in an article from The New Yorker, and there are countless memes on the topic. In this piece, I will address a couple of modern approaches to the Trolley Problem (if you want to know more about the origins of the Trolley Problem, please see another piece I wrote — The Trolley Problem: The Origins). If you don’t know what the Trolley Problem is, watch this video:

The episode about the Trolley…


Imagine a serial killer, say, Ted Bundy, he is charming, fit, good looking, some say attractive. People trusted him, so much so that he was able to convince many victims to go along with him wherever he wanted to take them. Many of Ted Bundy’s traits could be reasonably called virtues — at least in the Aristotelian sense. Aristotle said that virtues were character traits that were in the middle between two extremes. Some of the virtues he identified were things like courage, ambition, modesty, friendship. …


The Trolley Problem is a thought experiment in Ethics that was first created by philosopher Philippa Foot and then later rehashed and developed by philosopher Judith Jarvis Thomson. In this piece, I will try to convey how these two philosophers presented the problem. I will develop more about the Trolley Problem in other Medium pieces, including more contemporary examples and applications.

Philippa Foot (1920–2010)


John Maynard Keynes

In 1930, John Maynard Keynes, who was considered the world’s foremost economist of his own time, published an essay with the title “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren”. In this essay, Keynes speaks of a world to come, 100 years from the date that the essay was published, where prosperity would have grown so much that humanity would no longer have to struggle to survive. At that time, England was at the tail end of the second industrial revolution, with mass production becoming the norm. Much like today, with the third and fourth industrial revolutions, where automation and robotics are threatening…


Free Will is the idea that we can choose between alternatives, it usually includes the belief that we could have done otherwise. Philosophers have claimed that this is problematic because, in a scientific world view, where every state necessarily follows from the previous one, everything is, in fact, determined — this is usually called determinism. Determinism implies that everything that will happen in the Universe until the very last event is determined from the Big Bang. …


The film Hotel Rwanda depicts the events that happened during the Rwandan genocide. Don Cheadle plays Paul Rusesabagina, a manager of a Belgian-owned hotel in Rwanda. He is married to Tatian, played by Sophie Okonedo, and they have three children. Paul is a Hutu, while Tatiana is a Tutsi.

The conflict that happened during the Rwandan genocide was between Hutus and Tutsis. During the Belgian rule in Rwanda (it was a Belgian colony from 1922 to 1962), the Tutsis were given positions of power because of their lighter skin color, even though they were a minority in the country. …

Sara Bizarro

PhD in Philosophy, Professor, Artist, Movie Buff.

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